Sunday, December 5, 2010

Vitruvius Roman Order

Vitruvius (Marcus Vitruvius Pollio), born around 84 B.C. and died after 27 A.D. Marcus Vitruvius Pollio was an architect, engineer and writer. He is most famous for his writings of the book De Architura otherwise known as the ten books of architecture.

De Architectura
First (edited) publication in 1486 and is divided into 10 books about;
·        Book I: City planning and Architecture in general
·        Book II: Building materials and constructions
·        Book III: Temple construction
·        Book IV: Temple proportions of columns
·        Book V: Public buildings (theatres and baths)
·        Book VI: Private and agricultural buildings
·        Book VII: Floors and stucco decorations
·        Book VIII: Water installations
·        Book IX: Astronomy
·        Book X: Civil and military engines

According to book 1, Chaer 3, “The Department of Architecture” of Vitruvius’s writings, all
architecture must exhibit certain qualities. These qualities are firmitas, utilitas and
Firmitas: meaning strength and endurance which refers to the structural stability of the building and also the buildings longevity. This would be achieved by the building of solid foundations and the use of good materials.
Utilitas: meaning utility and usefulness. This is achieved by the spaces being situated correctly to ensure the functionality of the building and to efficiently facilitate the buildings purpose.
Venustas: meaning beauty and aesthetics. This is achieved by creating a pleasant appearance to the building and in the creation of proportionate spaces within that obey the laws of symmetry. 
The Panthen, Rome
Even though the Pantheon was built after Vitruvius’s death it is a good example of roman architecture that displays the three qualities discussed above.

Exterior view of the Panteon, Rome

Interior view of the Panteon, Rome

Drawings of the Panteon, Rome